||LOW IN FAT
LESS THAN 20 PER CENT
|HIGH IN FAT
MORE THAN 20 PER CENT
|Fruits and vegetables, fruit and vegetable
juices, dried fruit, pickles, sauerkraut, olives,
|| Avocado, coconut, creamed vegetables, vegetable oils
|Most breads and cereals, bagels, muffins, pasta, noodles, rice, corn,
barley, bulgur, oats, bran, potatoes, corn tortillas, rice cakes, pretzels,
water crackers, air popped popcorn, matzoh
||Crumpets, biscuits, cornbread,
waffles, pancakes, granola, croissants, pastries, doughnuts, flour tortillas,
French fries, hash browns, crisps, most snack crackers, oil popped and microwaved popcorn, wheat germ
||Skimmed milk, non-fat dried milk, 1% low fat
milk, buttermilk, non-fat and low-fat yogurt, non-fat and low-fat frozen
yogurt, non-fat and low-fat cottage cheese,
||Whole milk, semi-skimmed milk, cream, half
and half whipped cream, ice cream, non-dairy cream, most cheeses, sour
cream, cream cheese, creamed cottage cheese, butter
||Halibut, cod, haddock, sole, flounder,
red-snapper, tuna, tuna in water, butterfish, shrimp, squid, clams, oysters,
mussels, scallops, crab, white meat of poultry without skin, ham, lean
bacon, pork loin, veal, fillet steak, rump steak, venison, rabbit, egg
whites, pulses, salmon, swordfish, shark, trout, mackerel, anchovies,
sardines, dark meat of poultry
||White meat of poultry with skin,
most beef, most pork, most lamb, streaky bacon, sausage, hot dogs, nuts,
seeds, peanut butter, tofu, duck, eggs
||Broths, bouillon, most soups,
spices, herbs, mustard, ketchup, horseradish, soy sauce, teriyaki sauce,
vinegar, Worcestershire sauce, wine, fat-free salad dressings
||Creamed soups, salad dressing,
mayonnaise, margarine, oils, lard, beef suet
|SUGAR FOODS AND DESSERTS
||Jam, jelly, apple butter, sugar,
jelly beans, hard sweets, liquorice, lollipops, fruit bars, sorbet, fig
||Ginger snaps, angel food cake,
marshmallows, gelatin, chocolate, chocolate bars, most biscuits, most cakes,
pies, fudge, ice-cream
|If you eat an extra 100 calories of fat that your body doesn't need, it takes
only about 3 calories to digest and metabolize the fat. You will find 97 of
these fat calories stored in your fat cell.
100 calories-3 calories = 97 calories of fat to ready to
metabolize for storage
If you eat an extra 100 calories of carbohydrates or protein than your body
doesn't need, it takes at least 25 calories to digest and convert them to fat.
You will find 75 of those calories stored in your thighs 100 calories -25
calories 75 calories of carbohydrate convert to fat ready for storage.
estimate your fat intake, remember the BYOF rule:- This stands for Balance Your
Own Fat. 1 gram of fat provides 9 calories 1 gram of carbohydrate provides 4
calories 1 gram of protein provides 4 calories
30 per cent fat diet Is low enough to reduce your risk of disease and receive
some weight control benefit
20 per cent fat diet Is low enough to significantly reduce your risk of heart
disease and cancer and reduce your weight
10 per cent fat diet is low enough to reduce your risk of all diseases and lose
weight (and it's not so low that it will cause you harm) but it is so low that
it may cause feelings of restriction and deprivation
A 20 per cent fat diet is the perfect middle ground. You will not feel deprived
but you will get all the benefits of reduced disease risk and reduced fat cell
To achieve a diet that is in the region of about 20 per cent of the calories
from fat, all you have to do is ask yourself one important question. Does the
food I'm about to eat derive less than 20 per cent of its calories from fat or
more than 20 per cent of its calories from fat?
And balance your own fat intake with the BYOF '1 to 3 rule'. For every food that
derives over 20 per cent of its calories from fat, choose at least three other
foods that derive less than 20 per cent of their calories from fat. However, if
you don't choose high fat foods to begin with then you don't have to balance
your fat intake.
To calculate calories and grams of fat per serving.
You already know that each gram of fat provides your body with 9 calories, so
you first multiply the grams of fat by 9, then divide by the total calories per
serving too get the percentage of calories from fat.
Grams of fat x 9 calories/gram = % calories from fat Total calories per serving
Example. If the food has Calories per serving:150 Grams of fat 6 6 grams of fat
x 9 calories/gram = 54 fat calories
54 fat calories = 36% of the calories from fat 150 total calories which is more
than 20%, so is high in fat. Do not be fooled by Reduced Fat Foods Many 'lite'
foods are called lite because they are lighter in color or flavor or even
simply because they are lighter in weight, not because they are lighter in fat.
Most of the 'reduced fat' foods are made by taking the original food and adding
water to it. Water contains no calories, so it just dilutes the fat and
Example. Foods that claim '95% fat free' Food companies evaluate the fat content
based on weight, not based on calories. Remember your body doesn't care how much
a food weighs, it cares how many calories it will get from the food.
Here is an imaginary food, but most foods contain some fat, carbohydrates
protein and water. This food has:1 gram of fat that provides9 calories1 gram of
carbohydrates that provides4 calories1 gram of protein that provides 4 calories1
gram of water that provides 0 calories 4 grams total 17 calories total. A food
company would find it advantageous to evaluate the fat content of this food
based on weight.
There are 4 grams total and 1 gram from fat, so the food is 25 per cent fat by
weight. That is close to the less than 20 per cent recommendation, however the
less than 20 per cent recommendation is for percentage of fat by calories, not
percentage of fat by weight.
If we calculate the percentage of fat by calories, look what happens: 1 gram x 9
calores/gram = 9/17 total calories 53% of the calories from fat So to make this
food a 'lite' or 'reduced fat' version, a manufacturer need only add water.
Water adds weight to the food but doesn't add calories because water contains no
calories.1 gram of fat that provides 9 calories 1 gram of carbohydrates that
provides4 calorie 1 gram of protein that provides 4 calories 17 grams of
water that provides 0 calories 20 grams total17 calories total
The fat by weight has gone way down, but the fat by calories has stayed the
same. There are now 20 grams total with 1 gram of fat, so the percentage of fat
by weight is only 5 per cent. The claim on this food could be '95% fat free'. A
true statement by weight, but not by calories. It still derives 53 per cent of
its calories from fat.
Don't believe anything that you read on a food package figure it out yourself.
Further Fat Facts
As a woman you have over 30 billion fat cells in your body
right now that are capable of storing ten stones of fat. A fat cell's sole
purpose is to store calories when you do not need them and to release calories
when you do need them. There are names for the storage and release of fat
Lipogenesis: = the storage of fat
'lipo' means fat/'genesis' means formation lipolysis: + the release of fat
'lipo' means fat/'lysis' means breakdown.
A fat cell does not function alone, it requires help from a complex enzyme
system. Enzymes facilitate the transport of fat in and out of the fat cell. The
enzymes that help store fat are called the lipogenic enzymes, and the enzymes
that help release fat are the lipolytic enzymes.
Men and women have roughly the same number of fat cells but the difference is
the enzyme systems and the size of the fat cells. Women have more lipogenic
enzymes for the storage of fat, and the more you can store, the bigger the fat
cell. Men have more lipolytic enzymes for the release of fat, and therefore have
smaller fat cells.
Oestrogen, the female sex hormone, activates and multiplies the lipogenic
enzymes and directs where the fat is store The other difference between men and
women is the muscle cell.
Men have more muscle cells, about 40 per cent more. Muscle contains special
calorie burning structures called 'mitochondria' that convert calories to heat
and water. So when it comes to the decision on where calories go in the body'
the more muscle cells you have, the more calories are directed to the muscle
cells to be burned and the less to the fat cells to be stored.
Aerobicising your fat cells Reducing your fat intake and eating healthily will
encourage your cells to store less fat, however to release the fat that is
already there, aerobic exercise is essential. Aerobic exercise includes walking,
running, skipping, dancing, etc. Start with 30 minutes exercise per week, then
after two weeks increase to 30 minutes twice per week, ideally spaced out.
The aim is to build your exercise up to three times per week for 45 minutes